Change Management. Configuration Management. Incident Management. Capacity Management. Security Management. ITIL V2 Framework and Processes . This EXIN®-accredited course outlines the ITIL best-practices framework and prepares the participant for the ITIL v2 Foundation certification exam, a prerequisite. ITIL (IT Infrastructure Library) provides a framework of Best Practice guidance for IT . replaced by seven, more closely connected and consistent books (ITIL V2).
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The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) defines the is intended to answer a number of common questions, including those related to ITIL v2. With the ITIL Process Manual Dr. James Persse has laid out practical ideas that can help you adopting it. About 10 years later, OGC released ITIL V2. Abstract. This paper follows the article: Differences Between ITIL® V2 and ITIL® V3 with Respect to Service Strategy and Service Design. The main aim is to.
It is a single book of record for all usage, capacity, and performance data, complete with associated business, application and service statistics. AMIS Availability management information system — A virtual repository of all Availability Management data, usually stored in multiple physical locations.
Known Errors are managed throughout their lifecycle by the Problem Management process. A CMDB provides an organized view of data and a means of examining that data from any desired perspective. Within this context, components of an information system are referred to as configuration items CI. A CI can be any conceivable IT component, including software, hardware, documentation, and personnel as well as any combination of them.
The processes of configuration management specify, control, and track configuration items and any changes made to them in a comprehensive and systematic fashion. A DML consists of one or more software libraries or file-storage areas referred to as repositories. The primary purpose of Knowledge Management is to improve efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge What are the ITIL based models adopted by an organization.
Microsoft MOF: Microsoft Operations Framework MOF is a series of 23 documents that guide IT professionals through the processes of creating, implementing and managing efficient and cost-effective services. Hewlett — Packard HP ITSM Reference Model :— This model is a significant tool useful in presenting and describing the several IT Management processes , inter-process relationships, and business linkages that IT needs to put in place for successful development, deployment and support of services in the e-world.
The software consists of a set of best practice business process models and service definitions to support core system renewal and integration projects. What is the relation between Availability, Availability service time and downtime? The PDSA Cycle is a systematic series of steps for gaining valuable learning and knowledge for the continual improvement of a product or process.
Also known as the Deming Wheel, or Deming Cycle, the concept and application was first introduced to Dr. Do: Developing and testing a potential solution. Act: Implementing the improved solution fully. What type of information is captured in an information security policy? Information security policies are the documented business and technical rules for protecting an organization from information security risk faced by its business and technical infrastructure.
These written policy documents provide a high-level description of the various controls , which the organization will use to manage its information security risks.
In specific cases, the policies are supported by information security procedures that identify key activities required to implement relevant information security policies. This board is likely to be made up of representatives from all areas within IT and representatives from business units. Change authority A group that is given the authority to approve Change, e. Sometimes referred to as the Configuration Board. Change control The procedure to ensure that all Changes are controlled, including the submission, analysis, decision making, approval, implementation and post-implementation of the Change.
Change history Auditable information that records, for example, what was done, when it was done, by who and why. Change log A log of Requests for Change raised during the project, showing information on each Change, its evaluation, what decisions have been made and its current status, e.
Raised, Reviewed, Approved, Implemented, Closed. Change Process of controlling Changes to the infrastructure or any aspect of Management services, in a controlled manner, enabling approved Changes with minimum disruption.
Change record A record containing details of which CIs are affected by an authorised Change planned or implemented and how. Charging The process of establishing charges in respect of business units, and raising the relevant invoices for recovery from customers.
Classification Process of formally grouping Configuration Items by type e. Process of formally identifying Changes by type e. Process of formally identifying incidents, problems and known errors by origin, symptoms and cause.
Command, The processes by which an organisation retains overall co-ordination of control and its recovery effort during invocation of business recovery plans. It provides help in the planning, Systems analysis, design and documentation of computer software.
Configuration Configuration of a product or system established at a specific point in Baseline time, which captures both the structure and details of the product or see also system, and enables that product or system to be rebuilt at a later date.
Configuration Activities comprising the control of Changes to Configuration Items after control formally establishing its configuration documents. It includes the evaluation, co-ordination, approval or rejection of Changes. The implementation of Changes includes changes, deviations and waivers that impact on the configuration. Configuration Documents that define requirements, system design, build, production, documentation and verification for a configuration item.
Configuration Activities that determine the product structure, the selection of identification Configuration Items, and the documentation of the Configuration Item's physical and functional characteristics including interfaces and subsequent Changes.
It includes the allocation of identification characters or numbers to the Configuration Items and their documents. It also includes the unique numbering of configuration control forms associated with Changes and Problems. Configuration Component of an infrastructure - or an item, such as a Request for item CI Change, associated with an infrastructure - which is or is to be under the control of Configuration Management.
CIs may vary widely in complexity, size and type - from an entire system including all hardware, software and documentation to a single module or a minor hardware component. Configuration The process of identifying and defining the Configuration Items in a Management system, recording and reporting the status of Configuration Items and Requests for Change, and verifying the completeness and correctness of configuration items.
Configuration A database which contains all relevant details of each CI and details of Management the important relationships between CIs. Configuration A document setting out the organisation and procedures for the Management plan Configuration Management of a specific product, project, system, support group or service.
Configuration A software product providing automatic support for Change, Management Tool Configuration or version control. CM Tool.
Configuration A hierarchy of all the CIs that comprise a configuration. Contingency Planning to address unwanted occurrences that may happen at a later Planning time. Traditionally, the term has been used to refer to planning for the recovery of IT systems rather than entire business processes. Cost The amount of expenditure actual or notional incurred on, or attributable to, a specific activity or business unit.
Cost effectiveness Ensuring that there is a proper balance between the quality of service on the one side and expenditure on the other. Any investment that increases the costs of providing IT services should always result in enhancement to service quality or quantity.
Cost Management All the procedures, tasks and deliverables that are needed to fulfil an organisation's costing and charging requirements. Cost unit In the context of CSBC the cost unit is a functional cost unit which establishes standard cost per workload element of activity, based on calculated activity ratios converted to cost ratios.
Costing The process of identifying the costs of the business and of breaking them down and relating them to the various activities of the organisation. Crisis The processes by which an organisation manages the wider impact of a management disaster, such as adverse media coverage.
Customer Owner of the service; usually the Customer has responsibility for the cost of the service, either directly through charging or indirectly in terms of demonstrable business need. It is the Customer who will define the service requirements. Definitive The library in which the definitive authorised versions of all software CIs Software Library are stored and protected. It is a physical library or storage repository DSL where master copies of software versions are placed.
This one logical storage area may in reality consist of one or more physical software libraries or filestores. They should be separate from development and test filestore areas. The DSL may also include a physical store to hold master copies of bought-in software, e.
The DSL exists not directly because of the needs of the Configuration Management process, but as a common base for the Release Management and Configuration Management processes.
Delta Release A release that includes only those CIs within the Release unit that have actually changed or are new since the last full or Delta Release. For example, if the Release unit is the program, a Delta Release contains only those modules that have changed, or are new, since the last full release of the program or the last Delta Release of the modules - see also 'Full Release'.
Dependency The reliance, either direct or indirect, of one process or activity upon another. The annual depreciation charge in accounts represents the amount of capital assets used up in the accounting period. It is charged in the cost accounts to ensure that the cost of capital equipment is reflected in the unit costs of the services provided using the equipment.
There are various methods of calculating depreciation for the period, but the Treasury usually recommends the use of current cost asset valuation as the basis for the depreciation charge. Differential Charging business customers different rates for the same work, charging typically to dampen demand or to generate revenue for spare capacity. This can also be used to encourage off-peak or night time running.
Direct cost A cost that is incurred for, and can be traced in full to a product, service, cost centre or department. This is an allocated cost. Direct costs are direct materials, direct wages and direct expenses. Disaster recovery A series of processes that focus only upon the recovery processes, planning principally in response to physical disasters, that are contained within BCM. Discounted cash An evaluation of the future net cash flows generated by a capital project flow by discounting them to their present-day value.
The two methods most commonly used are:. Discounting The offering to business customers of reduced rates for the use of off- peak resources see also Surcharging. Disk cache Memory that is used to store blocks of data that have been read from controller the disk devices connected to them. Echoing A reflection of the transmitted signal from the receiving end, a visual method of error detection in which the signal from the originating device is looped back to that device so that it can be displayed.
Elements of cost The constituent parts of costs according to the factors upon which expenditure is incurred viz. End-User The person who uses the service on a day-to-day basis. Environment A collection of hardware, software, network communications and procedures that work together to provide a discrete type of computer service.
There may be one or more environments on a physical platform e. An environment has unique features and characteristics that dictate how they are administered in similar, yet diverse manners. Expert User In some organisations it is common to use 'Super' Users commonly known as Super or Expert Users to deal with first-line support problems and queries. This is typically in specific application areas, or geographical locations, where there is not the requirement for full-time support staff.
This valuable resource however needs to be carefully co- ordinated and utilised. External Target One of the measures, against which a delivered IT service is compared, expressed in terms of the customer's business.
Financial year An accounting period covering 12 consecutive months. In the public sector this financial year generally coincides with the fiscal year which runs from 1 April to 31 March. Forward Schedule Contains details of all the Changes approved for implementation and of Changes their proposed implementation dates. Once agreed, the Service Desk should communicate to the User community at large any planned additional downtime arising from implementing the Changes, using the most effective methods available.
Full cost The total cost of all the resources used in supplying a service i. Both cash costs and notional non-cash costs should be included, including the cost of capital.
Gateway Equipment which is used to interface networks so that a terminal on one network can communicate with services or a terminal on another.
Gradual Recovery Previously called 'Cold stand-by', this is applicable to organisations that do not need immediate restoration of business processes and can function for a period of up to 72 hours, or longer, without a re- establishment of full IT facilities. This may include the provision of empty accommodation fully equipped with power, environmental controls and local network cabling infrastructure, telecommunications connections, and available in a disaster situation for an organisation to install its own computer equipment.
Hard charging Descriptive of a situation where, within an organisation, actual funds are transferred from the customer to the IT organisation in payment for the delivery of IT services. Hard fault The situation in a virtual memory system when the required page of code or data, which a program was using, has been redeployed by the operating system for some other purpose. Host A host computer comprises the central hardware and software resources of a computer complex, e. The term is used to denote all non-network items.
Hot stand-by See 'Immediate Recovery'. Immediate Previously called 'Hot stand-by', provides for the immediate restoration Recovery of services following any irrecoverable incident.
It is important to distinguish between the previous definition of 'hot stand-by' and 'immediate recovery'. Hot stand-by typically referred to availability of services within a short timescale such as 2 or 4 hours whereas immediate recovery implies the instant availability of services.
Often equal to the extent of a distortion of agreed or expected Service Levels. Impact analysis The identification of critical business processes, and the potential damage or loss that may be caused to the organisation resulting from a disruption to those processes.
Business impact analysis identifies:. The time within which full recovery of the business processes is to be achieved is also identified. Impact scenario Description of the type of impact on the business that could follow a business disruption.
Usually related to a business process and will always refer to a period of time, e. Incident Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service. Indirect costs are also referred to as overheads. In order to fulfil its role the 'Informed' Customer function must gain clarity of vision in relation to the business plans and assure that suitable strategies are devised and maintained for achieving business goals.
The 'Informed' Customer function ensures that the needs of the business are effectively translated into a business requirements specification, that IT investment is both efficiently and economically directed, and that progress towards effective business solutions is monitored.
The 'Informed' Customer should play an active role in the procurement process, e. Sometimes also called 'Intelligent Customer'. Interface Physical or functional interaction at the boundary between Configuration Items. Intermediate Previously called 'Warm stand-by', typically involves the re- Recovery establishment of the critical systems and services within a 24 to 72 hour period, and is used by organisations that need to recover IT facilities within a predetermined time to prevent impacts to the business process.
Internal target One of the measures against which supporting processes for the IT service are compared. Usually expressed in technical terms relating directly to the underpinning service being measured. Invocation of Putting business recovery plans into operation after a business business recovery disruption.
ISO The internationally accepted set of standards concerning quality management systems. Known Error An Incident or Problem for which the root cause is known and for which a temporary Work-around or a permanent alternative has been identified.
If a business case exists, an RFC will be raised, but, in any event, it remains a Known Error unless it is permanently fixed by a Change. It is normally defined by manufacturers as being half the disk rotation time. Lifecycle A series of states, connected by allowable transitions. The lifecycle represents an approval process for Configuration Items, Problem Reports and Change documents.
Marginal Cost The cost of providing the service now, based upon the investment already made. Operational Level An internal agreement covering the delivery of services which support Agreement the IT organisation in their delivery of services.
Opportunity cost The value of a benefit sacrificed in favour of an alternative course of or true cost action. That is the cost of using resources in a particular operation expressed in terms of foregoing the benefit that could be derived from the best alternative use of those resources. Outsourcing The process by which functions performed by the organisation are contracted out for operation, on the organisation's behalf, by third parties.
Page fault A program interruption that occurs when a page that is marked 'not in real memory' is referred to by an active page. With insufficient real memory, the operating system writes old pages to disk, and reads new pages from disk, so that the required data and instructions are in real memory.
Percentage The amount of time that a hardware device is busy over a given period utilisation of time. Phantom line A communications error reported by a computer system that is not error detected by network monitoring equipment. It is often caused by changes to the circuits and network equipment e. Prime cost The total cost of direct materials, direct labour and direct expenses.
The term prime cost is commonly restricted to direct production costs only and so does not customarily include direct costs of marketing or research and development. Priority Sequence in which an Incident or Problem needs to be resolved, based on impact and urgency. Process A connected series of actions, activities, Changes etc, performed by agents with the intent of satisfying a purpose or achieving a goal.
Process Control The process of planning and regulating, with the objective of performing the process in an effective and efficient way. Programme A collection of activities and projects that collectively implement a new corporate requirement or function. Queuing time Queuing time is incurred when the device, which a program wishes to use, is already busy. The program therefore has to wait in a queue to obtain service from that device.
RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks - a mechanism for providing data resilience for computer systems using mirrored arrays of magnetic disks. Different levels of RAID can be applied to provide for greater resilience.
Reference data Information that supports the plans and action lists, such as names and addresses or inventories, which is indexed within the plan. Request for Form, or screen, used to record details of a request for a change to any Change RFC CI within an infrastructure or to procedures and items associated with the infrastructure.
Resource cost The amount of machine resource that a given task consumes. Resource profile The total resource costs that are consumed by an individual online transaction, batch job or program. Resource unit Resource units may be calculated on a standard cost basis to identify costs the expected standard cost for using a particular resource.
Because computer resources come in many shapes and forms, units have to be established by logical groupings. Examples are:. Resources The IT Services section needs to provide the customers with the required services. The resources are typically computer and related equipment, software, facilities or organisational people.
Return to normal The phase within a business recovery plan which re-establishes normal phase operations. Risk A measure of the exposure to which an organisation may be subjected. This is a combination of the likelihood of a business disruption occurring and the possible loss that may result from such business disruption.
Risk Analysis The identification and assessment of the level measure of the risks calculated from the assessed values of assets and the assessed levels of threats to, and vulnerabilities of, those assets. Risk Management The identification, selection and adoption of countermeasures justified by the identified risks to assets in terms of their potential impact upon services if failure occurs, and the reduction of those risks to an acceptable level.
Risk reduction Measures taken to reduce the likelihood or consequences of a business measure disruption occurring as opposed to planning to recover after a disruption. Rotational A facility which is employed on most mainframes and some Position Sensing minicomputers. It describes the elapsed time taken to move heads to the right track.
Self-insurance A decision to bear the losses that could result from a disruption to the business as opposed to taking insurance cover on the risk. Service The actual service levels delivered by the IT organisation to a customer achievement within a defined life-span.
Service A formal project undertaken within an organisation to identify and Improvement introduce measurable improvements within a specified work area or Programme work process. Service Level Written agreement between a service provider and the Customer s , Agreement that documents agreed Service Levels for a Service. Service Level The process of defining, agreeing, documenting and managing the Management levels of customer IT service, that are required and cost justified.
Service Management of Services to meet the Customer's requirements. Service provider Third-party organisation supplying services or products to customers. Service quality The written plan and specification of internal targets designed to plan guarantee the agreed service levels. Services The deliverables of the IT Services organisation as perceived by the Customers; the services do not consist merely of making computer resources available for customers to use.
Simulation Using a program to simulate computer processing by describing in modelling detail the path of a job or transaction. It can give extremely accurate results. Unfortunately, it demands a great deal of time and effort from the modeller. It is most beneficial in extremely large or time-critical systems where the margin for error is very small.